WH 2017

Question Answer
Paleolithic- Old Stone Age Characterized primarily by hunters and gatherers

Neolithic- New Stone Age
Animistic- Religion based on animal spirits
Domesticate Taming wild animals to be beneficial to humans, dogs first, cows, pigs goats, etc later.
Hunter-Gatherers society where people move around (nomadic) and get their food from hunting and gathering
What human actions led to Cultural Diffusion taking place? Cultural Diffusion is when to societies/cultures blend together, it happens through interactions like war, trade,

and marriage
The New Stone Age started when mankind started doing what two actions? Farming and domesticating animals
River Valley Civilizations

City-State-
small regionalized area under the control of one ruler that was usually dependent on a larger government system
River Valley Civilizations

Job Specialization
when a society shifts to one where individuals do different jobs (not all hunter gatherers) i.e. warriors, farmers, priests, merchants, etc.
River Valley Civilizations

Hierarchy
when a society has a system in place where one group is considered “better” than another. I.e. below the Ruler, the priests were regularly the top of the social hierarchy.
What was the basic concepts of Hammurabi’s Code? Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth. Punishments will be equal to the crime.
Early Civilization economies were based on what system? Bartering, currency wasn’t consistent so instead trading was the norm
What is the main feature that signals the rise of civilization? Building cities
Where were the first four river civilizations located? Mesopotamia, Indus River Valley, China, Egypt
Ancient Greece- 10 questions

Democracy
Government rule where many people have influence
ancient Greece

Monarchy
Government rule where only one person is in charge usually a king
Ancient Greece

Aristocracy
Government rule where a small group of relatives (nobility) are in charge
Ancient Greece

Oligarchy
Government rule where a small group of people are in charge, usually have something in common

like priests or trade in the same business
Ancient Greece

Republic
A type of democracy where a council of people are chosen to rule
Ancient Greece

Dictatorship
A type of monarchy where the leader is particularly cruel or harsh
How did the geography of Greece influence their development? M Mountains and islands forced the society to stay isolated, divided, and relatively small
Describe life in Sparta Chief focus was on military and discipline
What was democracy like in Athens? It gave more people a say in government compared to other societies at that point in history
What forced Greek city-states to unify? Threats from outside invaders (Persian Empire)
Who was Alexander the Great?

What did he accomplish?
Macedonian King who expanded his rule from Greece to India
What was the Peloponnesian War? How did it start? What did it change? War between Sparta and Athens because Sparta resented Athenian domination/superiority. Results in weakening both and the overall decline of Greece.
Rome- 23 Questions

Dictator
Singular ruler who has total control over the government, in Rome, given out in times of emergency
Rome

Patrician
The upper class in Roman society, made most of the political decisions and held most of the wealth
Rome

Consul –
A person elected by patrician class to supervise daily government functions
Rome

Tribune
A person elected by the plebeian class, limited powers in Senate but could veto
Rome

Plebeian
One of the lower classes in Roman society, usually farmers, merchants, etc
Rome

Aqueducts
Huge engineering achievement that brought water from mountains to cities
Rome

Emperor
A dictator for life, happens later when Rome transitions from Republic to Empire
Rome

Augustus
Takes over after Caesar, leads rome during the height of their power.
Rome

Julius Caesar
Notable Roman Leader because he is first Emperor, implements reforms, and is killed by

senators on the senate floor.
Rome

Constantine
Attempted to save Rome during it’s decline by splitting them into two empires
Rome

Gladiator
Warrior slave who fought for the entertainment of Roman citizens
Rome

Pax Romana
Period of Roman peace
Summarize Roman society, describe the social hierarchy (pyramid). Extremely rigid and structured, Emperor at the top, Equestrians, Patricians, Plebeians, Freedmen, and Slaves down the pyramid
How did the geography of Rome shape their civilization? Large fertile fields allowed for bigger cities and larger armies. Location allowed them to influence trade from Asia, Africa, and Europe. These things made them VERY successful
Who did the Romans replace in Italy during their rise? The Etruscan people
Describe the Punic Wars. Who fought? Who won? Rome and Carthage. Rome won eventually. First war: Rome conquers Carthage islands of Sardinia, Corsica, and Sicily. Second war: Carthage leader Hannibal marches huge army of elephant on city of Rome,
How and Why? Third War: Rome conquers Carthage, burns it, enslaves most of the people and puts salt in the earth so that they can no longer grow food or rise up to fight again.
How were conquered people treated by Roman officials? Usually pretty well, the Romans would incorporate their society and culture and not replace the local leadership, soldiers and Roman leaders would usually marry into the society and some could earn
Where did Romans view Gladitorial games? The Coliseum
Why did Rome fall, what were the circumstances? A After a long decline with many circumstances (including political corruption, excessive military spending, declining morals and values, unemployment, etc), the city of Rome is sacked by invading barbarians and
Any info from your GRAPES chart G- Geography- What was the land like

R- Religion- What Religions did each society

practice

A- Achievements- What major accomplishments did each have
Any info from your GRAPES chart P- Political- How was their goverment run, who were it’s major individuals E- Economic- Who with and what did they trade

S- Social Structure- What was uniques about how their society was run

Fo
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