How To Write a Research Paper by H. Markman

Have you ever wondered how to write a research paper? I have, and this is what you need to know. Markman’s 10 Step to Writing a Research Paper state that a research is a systematic investigation into a subject in order to discover new information. Therefore, the research process is not just “writing a paper,” it is a learning experience. A new topic that a student may know nothing about can suddenly become a main area of interest. A “Eureka” idea is common for many students when beginning to research a topic. “Eureka” ideas are the basis of today’s society. Without these ideas, nothing new would ever come out of old information. Every person should know how to accomplish the research process successfully.

When writing an actual paper, after doing the accurate kinds of research, a few different paths may be taken. One main path is the most known and accepted. The correct path, when writing a research paper, involves ten systematic steps. If you want a well-written research paper, refer to Markman’s ten-step process logically and in sequence.
The beginning phases of writing a research paper are the most crucial.

1. The first step is to find a subject. The topic should be one of interest, but not necessarily of familiarity.

2. Next, a general article should be read. The purpose of reading a general article is to become oriented with the subject, and find out if it is too broad or narrow. If the subject is too large, break it down. Phrases and sentences in the article can help when it comes time for formulating a temporary thesis, which is part of the third step. The thesis should never be an open-ended question. A thesis statement, in many respects, has the same function as the topic sentence of a paragraph.

3. Introduction to the topic or argument to be proved is done by the thesis. The other part of the third step is to formulate a temporary outline. Main ideas from the general article read can help give an outline to follow. The temporary outline and temporary thesis will change as further progression on the paper happens. The first three steps tend to be the shortest when writing the paper. Although the steps can be done quickly, thought should be put into them since the rest of the paper will be based on them.

4. Preparation of a preliminary bibliography is the fourth step. A library is the best place to begin this step. Six main places exist to look for books to get information from. The six places are card catalogs, periodical indexes, special indexes, bibliographies, special encyclopedias and sources that are used. Carefully reading through the bibliography and notes of each book and article originally consulted more often than not will help in discovery of additional sources. At the present point in time, if nothing can be found pertaining to the choice topic, it is time to choose another. Approximately fifty sources should be looked up and recorded onto bibliography cards. The bibliography cards should include the name of the author, the title, and facts of publication. The fourth step may seem timely, but will pay off during later steps of the paper. The next two steps can be done practically simultaneously.

5. The fifth step is to take notes from relevant sources. The easiest way to take notes is to read with a pen in hand and a determination to make frequent notes. Always remember to write the name of the book in which the facts were found at the top of the paper. If a student chooses to take the quicker way out, he or she may copy notes directly onto the note cards from the source. To avoid errors, many students choose to use the copy, cut and paste method. The student will first make a photocopy of the needed page from the source. He or she will then cut out the needed information and paste it right onto the back of the note card. After all the note cards are completed, they should be labeled and numbered. Once this has been accomplished, the note cards can be separated into piles. The piles should become the basis of the outline, with each pile representing a different paragraph.

6. The outline should now be written in its final form. If notes have been changed, be sure to make the sufficient corrections to the outline. Once the final outline is finished, all of the “prewriting stages” will be considered complete. The actual writing can now begin.

7. Step 7 is to write the rough draft. The thesis and outline should be checked to make sure all of the information if relevant and correct. The introduction and conclusion for the paper should be written last. Always skip lines when writing the rough draft, so room will be available to make corrections. When using a direct quote, staple it to the paper, so no chance of a mistake when rewriting it is possible. If changes were made as the rough draft was written, revise the outline. Next, the rough draft should be revised. This step is also combined with writing the introduction and conclusion. When revising the rough draft, read it aloud. A person can easily overlook a good many errors unless the time and effort is spent to check everything.

8. After all revisions have been made, the introduction and conclusion should be written. The conclusion is the most valuable part of the paper because it is a student’s only “original’ contribution. It also shows a student’s understanding of the material, and value of their research. When stymied for a way to end the piece, go back to the first line, the first paragraph, the first page, the first chapter, and reread it several times. Many times this will spark an idea since the very first ideas somehow also contain a logical conclusion.

Steps 7 and 8 require a student to think, so that they will come up with just the right way to say something to grab the reader’s attention. If steps 7 and 8 are finished poorly, no matter how remarkable the other steps are done, the paper will be worthless. The last two steps finalize the paper.

9. The ninth step is to fill in footnotes on the draft. All important statements of fact and opinion should be footnoted. Definitions that would interrupt the text should also be footnoted. Three places occur where footnotes can be placed. The three places are in the text itself, on the bottom of every page and on the last page. Every person has his or her preference, therefore, when a research paper is assigned, ask the instructor to recommend a style guide. Use a consistent system of numbering with footnotes.

10. The tenth, and final step, is to put the paper in final form. Ten elements are involved in the tenth step. The format of the paper is double-spaced with a title page. The preface should be inserted after the title page. The outline comes next, serving as a table of contents. The first page of the text should have the title centered on it. Footnotes will be exactly as they appeared on the rough draft. Pages should be numbered in the upper right-hand corner. Quotes should be either woven into the text or footnoted. When weaving a quote, it should blend smoothly in style and tense. The bibliography is the last page, and should be in alphabetical order. The last step is to proofread carefully. After the ten elements of the tenth step have been executed, the research paper is complete.

If you referred to Markman’s 10-Step Process In Writing a Research Paper logically and in sequence, you will have a well-written paper. If the ten systematic steps are followed accurately, a flawless research paper is guaranteed. It is simply a necessity for everyone to learn the basic steps of research. This is frankly not the case for research at all. Simply reading a book on a topic a student would like to learn more about is a type of research. Even if a “Eureka” idea is not produced, some piece of new information will be gained. It is the “Eureka” ideas that are the basis of today’s society, but it is the little pieces of new information that build a student up to be able to have the “Eureka” ideas. I wanted to know how to write a research paper. Markman’s ten-step process states that there must be 10 logical steps that must be followed in order to do so. A good research paper must be laid out and planned correctly. Without research, no one would be able to learn the things the world knows now. The world continues to move forward because of the many kinds of research. In other words, research is what keeps the world’s economies going.

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