SOC 1113 CH 5 SOC 1113 Chapter 5 – Societies

Term Definition
agricultural societies societies that rely on farming as a way of life
feudal societies societies that operate on a strict hierarchical system of power based around land ownership and protection
horticulture societies societies based around the cultivation of plants
hunter-gatherer societies societies that depend on hunting wild animals and gathering uncultivated plants for survival
industrial societies societies characterized by a reliance on mechanized labor to create material goods
information societies societies based on the production of non-material goods and services
pastoral societies societies based around the domestication of animals
alienation an individual’s isolation from his society, his work, and his sense of self
anomie a situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness
bourgeoisie the owners of the means of production in a society class consciousness: awareness of one’s rank in society
collective conscience the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society
false consciousness a person’s beliefs and ideology are in conflict with her best interests
iron cage a situation in which an individual is trapped by social institutions
mechanical solidarity a type of social order maintained by the collective consciousness of a culture
organic solidarity a type of social order based around an acceptance of economic and social differences
proletariat the laborers in a society
rationalization a belief that modern society should be built around logic and efficiency rather than morality or tradition
social integration how strongly a person is connected to his or her social group
achieved status the status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income
ascribed status the status outside of an individual’s control, such as sex or race
habitualization the idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit
institutionalization the act of implanting a convention or norm into society
looking-glass self our reflection of how we think we appear to others
roles patterns of behavior that are representative of a person’s social status
role-set an array of roles attached to a particular status
role conflict when one or more of an individual’s roles clash
role performance the expression of a role
role strain stress that occurs when too much is required of a single role
self-fulfilling prophecy an idea that becomes true when acted upon
status the responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rank and role in society
Thomas theorem how a subjective reality can drive events to develop in accordance with that reality, despite being originally unsupported by objective reality