#1 Andrew Jackson essay
Andrew Jackson was not one of the most effective American Presidents. Jackson became president because everyone liked him. Jackson was said to have been the first true president of the common people. In all the uproar about what kind of man Jackson was, the voters failed to learn, Jackson’s stands on major issues. Jackson firmly believed that the government should be restricted to a “simple machine, which the Constitution created”. This proved that he was truly a man of the people. Jackson’s presidency focused mainly on states’ rights, nullification, the tariff, the spoils system, Indian removal and banking policies. Some of his biggest actions were the “Tariff of Abominations” and the veto of the Second Bank of the United States.
Jackson gained a national reputation after his victory over the British in the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. Everyone from the south liked him because he was a Tennessee slaveholder, a famous Indian fighter, and supported the removal of Indian removal. He was chosen to lead a new political party that would go against Adams’ “National Republicans.” Jackson’s political party was called the Democratic party. Americans related to Jackson because he was viewed as an “ordinary citizen” and the “common man.” When election time came, Jackson got more than twice the electoral vote of Adams.
While John Adams was still in office, Jackson’s supporters in Congress completed a bill that would raise tariffs on imported textiles. This bill hurt the South, by raising the cost of manufactured goods for southerners. The Jackson supporters had hoped that southerners would blame Adams for this “Tariff of Abominations”, but Jackson got most of the blame. Jackson and his vice president, John C. Calhoun, argued about the tariff because Calhoun believed only tariffs that raised the revenue for such things as defense were constitutional. In 1828, Calhoun anonymously wrote to the South Carolina Exposition and Protest, and argued about how the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and should be able to get nullified by the states if necessary. This set up a clash between Jackson and Calhoun that finally ended when Jackson signed “the olive branch and the sword.” These bills gradually lowered duties between 1833 and 1842, and the sword let the president use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina. After this happened, Calhoun resigned and in 1832, Martin Van Buren ran as Jackson’s vice president and they won dramatically.
Andrew Jackson was not a fan of the National Bank. When it came time to recharter the Second Bank of the United States, Jackson vetoed the bill. In his second term Jackson decided to remove federal deposits from the bank into “pet banks” which virtually took away the power Nicholas Biddle’s power as president of the Second National Bank, which left him and anti-Jackson people very upset with what they called the abuse of his powers. The increase in loans from the state-chartered banks brought on the use of a paper currency that was issued by the state banks, but since Jackson prohibited the use of paper money to by federal land or pay federal debts, the demand for coins called species led to many bank failures in the Panic of 1837.
Andrew Jackson was a good president, but not one of the nation’s greatest. He lost much southern support from the “Tariff of Abominations,” but gained support after the “bank veto.” He supported the Indian Removal Act, which moved many Indians to the west. He openly supported “rotation in office” which removed officeholders of a rival party. Jackson was not one of the most effective U.S. presidents. He did things to hurt our nation, and some things that helped.
#2 Andrew Jackson essay
Andrew Jackson is widely regarded as one of the most popular Presidents in United States history. While his Presidency was certainly well-intentioned, Jackson’s negative aspects have lasted longer than many of his positive ones. Considering all aspects of the administration, Jackson’s years in office can be fairly described as detrimental to the country. Jackson’s programs were introduced and could have been successful had they been executed properly. Jackson held federal principles very close to him, and those principles were evident in every major decision he made.
Jackson, as a strict constructionist, did not believe in doing anything the Constitution did not expressly allow. However, he was very fond of using his Presidential powers to the fullest, even to points of corruption and illogic. Jackson’s “spoils system” could, at most, have very few benefits. The system would put loyal Democrats in high-ranking positions without demonstrating any competence for the position. Jackson was stubborn when it came to politics, as demonstrated by the Peggy Eaton affair. Jackson was extremely disappointed and furious at his Cabinet, so he promptly decided to ignore them all. He created a “Kitchen Cabinet” to discuss secure government matters with his closest friends, even though they did not necessarily have political experience. Jackson also had a fondness for using his veto power. Although vetoes are permissible to promote the best interests of the country, Jackson vetoed any bill he did not agree with. Jackson especially vetoed legislation that took power from the states or granted more power to the federal government, which was against his Democratic beliefs. Jackson’s administration did not foster the growth of what was still a developing country.
Although Jackson was competent at handling foreign affairs, he had difficulty dealing with some internal conflicts. Something Jackson never dealt well with was how to deal with the Indians. It is well-known that Jackson’s feelings suggested “the only good Indian is a dead Indian”. The case of Worcester v. Georgia and the Trail of Tears continue Jackson’s pattern of forced removal of Indians in the southeastern United States. The Black Hawk War, fought in the northern Mississippi River valley, proved that Jackson’s hatred for Indians was pure and swept across the entire developed country. Jackson also arguably sent the economy into a severe depression towards the end of his second term. The Second Bank of the U.S., which was not authorized by the Constitution, was due to be re-chartered in 1832. Jackson refused to re-charter it, believing that it served no purpose to the country. All money was taken out of the federal bank and deposited into “pet” banks, which were chartered by the states. These banks led to enormous inflation, which led the country into a depression. The specie circular was introduced, which would become the only currency accepted in the purchase of federal lands. Jackson did not support and federal funding being used for state projects. The Maysville Road veto was rendered because the entire country would not benefit. Being a state project, Kentucky should fund completion of the project. Believing that public education stripped a child of learning values at home, Jackson did not support federal funding for public schools. Therefore, the schools relied entirely on the states and other fund-raisers to keep going. Jackson’s administration did not try to pursue greater power for the central government.
Although Jackson’s administration neglected many needs of the common public, it was successful to some degree. One of the strongest things done was opening up the system of government to everyone. The development of the two-party system under Jackson allowed more “average men” to get involved in politics. People not only got involved in things such as campaigning. All white men gained the right to become voters, giving them the highest freedom possible regarding their government. Jackson’s role as a leader allowed everyone to have dreams of being just like him. People began to push themselves harder to achieve whatever they could. One of Jackson’s strongest political beliefs was that of nullification. He believed that if left alone, nullification could lead to a division of the Union. While he did not grant the central government too much power, he realized that it had to maintain some sort of control over the states. Jackson’s strong devotion to his country helped him to keep the nation in mind as he ruled.
While he often ruled with his heart instead of his brilliant mind, Andrew Jackson did make some considerable contributions to the United States; contributions that are still seen today. When his entire administration is examined, Jackson shows an equal number of positive and negative influences. Most of his negative influences, however, had a strong impact on life in the United States at some point. While Jackson was one of the strongest and most popular leaders in this country’s history, he made some mistakes that would spell a Chief Executive’s demise today.
#3 Andrew Jackson essay
Due to the evidence presented during the impeachment trial of President Andrew Jackson, I think that he should be impeached. His actions in the instances of the second bank of the United States were not unconstitutional but the actions against the Native Americans however were. Although he believed his acts were in the interest of the American people, I can not believe so.
The second bank of the United States was founded in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States and the chaos that ensued. The legality of the Bank was upheld in the 1819 Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland which also declared null and void any state law contrary to a federal law made in pursuance of the Constitution. However, Andrew Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Second Bank of the United States on July 10, 1832. The defense presented that he did so because he believed it to be best for the democracy and people of the United States. He believed the bank to be a monopoly, which was for the good of the higher classes, mostly to the east. His veto of the bill to re-charter the bank of the United States was not unconstitutional, Congress could have gotten a two- thirds vote to stop the veto, but they did not; Therefore his actions were not unconstitutional but were for his own personal reasons.
However, his decisions involving Georgia and the Native Americans were unconstitutional. He ignored the constitution when he allowed Georgia to go against the right of the Natives and remove them from their own land. The Cherokee in Georgia had received recognition of their semiautonomous status in a federal treaty in 1791. They had become farmers, ranchers and cotton producers. They developed their own constitution, built roads and churches, developed a successful educational system and owned slaves. The Cherokee refused all inducements to sell their highly prized and very fertile lands.
In 1828, the State of Georgia enacted a law that gave authority over all Native American land matters to the state government. The Cherokee resisted and took their case to court, arguing that their treaty rights had been established by the federal government in 1791 and could not be abrogated by the state. The initial case was dismissed, but in 1832 the John Marshall Court ruled that only the federal government had authority over Native American lands. President Jackson, clearly a supporter of the land wants of the white farmers, allowed Georgia to ignore treaties made with the Native Americans along with treaties made between the federal government and the Cherokees and remove the Indians. It was clear that Jackson would not act to block the dispossession of the native tribes. By 1838, the policy of relocation had essentially cleared the natives from the southeastern lands east of the Mississippi River. The Cherokee were the last to go, being forced to leave most of their possessions behind, including their livestock. Their “Trail of Tears” extended 1,200 miles, from Georgia to present-day Oklahoma.
His want to keep democracy alive in the United States and loyalty to the people was very strong and good to an extent but some of his decisions were in the interest of his own personal feelings. If he was a president of the people and for the people, his decisions should have been benefited all not just the groups he chose.