Term Definition
Images of managing change Controlling-planned, organized, commanding, coordinating and controlling

Shaping-improve the capabilities within the organization

Intended, partially intended, unintended
Images of change managers Director-project manager

navigator- politician


Coach-help team self manager-teaching skills


nurturer-foster qualities but that is all
Planned change deliberate, purposeful and explicit decision to engage in program of problem solving and improvement
General model for planned change entering and contracting > diagnosing > planning and implementing change > evaluating and institutionalizing change

Other models-Lewin and Kotter
Assumptions of planned/episodic change Linear, progressive, goal, disequalibrium,
Comparison of planned change models: Similarities Change preceded by diagnosis and preparation

apply behavioral science knowledge

stress involvement of organizational members

recognize the role of consultants

Comparison of planned change models: Differences General vs. specific activities

Centrality of consultant role

problem solving vs. social constructionism
Critique of planned change change is not linear

change is not rational

limited consulting skills and focus

quick fixes vs. developmental approaches
Emergent Change Change is ongoing, continuous and cumulative

much change goes unnoticed because small and lumped together in uneventful inertia

System is in constant flow and change agent intervene in flow

Views organization as meaning making system
Lewin 3 step model Unfreeze (Destabilize equilibrium-reducing the forces maintaining the organization's behavior at present level)

Moving (Implement change program-Action research)

Refreeze (Stabilize equilibrium/institutionalize)
Planned Change criticism Burnes

too simplistic and mechanistic for complex organizations that are continuously changing

Not good for radical change

Ignores power and politics

Advocate for top-down management driven approach
Planned Change response to criticism Burnes

Recognizes unpredictable nature-need to refreeze

In times of crisis rapid change can occur

Did take into account power and buy-in

Everyone needs to be equally committed
Core assumptions of OD People strive towards growth and development and can usually contribute more than environment permits

Work groups are most psychologically relevant reference group-people want to be accepted-trust

Style and climate of organization affect low teams
OD-Core Humanistic values developmental in outlook and concerned with long range opportunities for personal growth

commitment to both action and research

power equalization/democratization

honesty and high levels of trust are essential
Diagnostic OD Core tasks of change agent is creation of valid data

Purpose of data gathering to describe diagnosis

Prescribe intervention based on diagnosis

Concerned with process

Open systems theory-organization as open/living system-adapt to external envirment
Appreciative Inquiry Part of emergent OD

Does not diagnose-instead seeks to evoke new ideas that will compel self-organizing change

Narratives about positive times

Believes that diagnosis too problem centric and elicits resistance
Models of Consultation Purchase-know what problem is and know what looking for. Doctor-Patient-tell what is wrong and how to fix. Facilitator-steer the process. Process/Catalyst-help client to figure out solution on own.
Poulfelt key ethical dilemmas Instigated by uncertainty. Maximum income v. best solution, Optimal approach v. client's budget, Professional effort v. client's interest, Proximity v. keeping a distance, Full knowledge v. incomplete knowledge
Ethical Dilemma's role conflict and ambiguity Misrepresentation-promising unreasonable results. Misuse of data-using information punitively, Coercion-forcing members to participate, conflict of values and goals, technical ineptness
Minimal Ethical Standards for OD Practice-French and Bell Select interventions with high probability of being helpful, use expertise, inform client, no hidden agendas, confidentiality, no coercion, no promises of unrealistic outcomes
Ethics-Burnes Emergent change no basis in Ethics, more concerned about short term wins than long term success
Entering Process clarify the organizational issues, determine relevant clients, assess climate for change, select consultant and change team
Diagnosis Not about telling what problem is, about unfreezing and deciding on model, identify underlying causal forces
Main Steps of Diagnosis Select a conceptual model for diagnosis, clarifying information requirements, deciding on how best to gather the data, gathering information, analysis, interpretation, feedback
Weisbord's six box model Formal and informal environment-what happens in theory and what happens in practice. Six key elements that are all linked. Open system
Weisbord's six factors LHPRRS Purpose-goal clarity and goal agreement. Structure- function-slow moving, product/program/project-fast moving. Relationships-how is conflict managed. Rewards-growth and equity. Leadership-knowing boxes. Helpful mechanisms-technologies
Burke-Litwin Causal Model Transformational (big and overarching-org leve) and transactional (day to day processes) change, all linkages, open systems
BL-Transformational factors Responds to external environment, mission and strategy, leadership and organizational culture
BL-Transactional factors MMICSS Structure, management practice, systems, work unit climate, motivation, individual needs and values
Cumming and Worley Comprehensive model factors must fit company strategy, looks at organizational, group and individual level. Within these looks at inputs, design components and outputs
Higgin's 8 S Model everything needs to aligned and pointing in the same direction towards strategic performance. Strategy and purpose, Structure, Systems and processes, Style, Staff, ReSources, Shared vision
Which model for diagnosis? Relevance to issue under consideration. Identifies elements and cause and effect relationship contributing to problem or opportunity. Indicate which has most weight. Highlight aspects of organizational functioning that change agent can do something about.
5 steps of Appreciative Inquiry 1. Defining the focus of the inquiry 2. Discovering the best of what is 3. Dreaming about what might be 4. Designing provocative propositions 5. Delivering the dream
Methods for data collection Questionnaires-quantifiable, inexpensive,but no empathy and predetermined. Interviews-adaptive, build rapport, but expensive, difficult to code, bias. Observation-behavior, adaptive, but hard to code, inconsistent, expensive.
Methods for data collection 2 Unobtrusive measures-quantifiable, face validity, but retrieval difficulties and interpretation difficulties
Preparing Feedback Primary task to present picture. Understandable and actionable. Focus on items that the client has control over changing, are clearly important to the organization and there is some commitment to work on
Politics Pfeffer necessary to understand organizational power and politics to get things done
Power in change literature denial, acceptance without engagement, recognition without advice
Bunchanan-Power and OD Political power is an accepted rather than objectionable dimension of the change agency role. To ignore politics is to fail. Not all tricks are dirty tricks. Not an argument to abandon old methods both to investigate political dimensions further
Sources of power Knowledge, others support, personality
Identifying power and commitment of stakeholders Identify stakeholder,assess power and attitudes, turn weak opposition to weak support. Many initiatives fail not attend to key stakeholders interests
Motivating change Expectancy theory, exchange theory-need to know what is desired and know that if they do good job positive outcome, job enhancement, financial incentives, collaboration
Creating readiness Creating a felt need for change by: sensitizing the organization to pressures for change, revealing discrepancies between current and desired state, conveying credible positive expectations for change
Sustaining change momentum providing resources for change, building support system for change agents, developing new competencies and skills, reinforcing new behaviors
Resistance people don't like change-uncertainty. Need to involve people and get commitment
Why resistance-Kotter and Schlesinger parochial self interest, misunderstanding and lack of trust, different assessments, low tolerance for change
Six strategies for managing resistance-Kotter and Schlesinger Education and communication, participation and involvement, facilitation and support, negotiation and agreement, manipulation, Coercion/threats. Needs to be tailored to event and use multiple approaches
Situational factors for managing resistance-Kotter and Schlesinger Amount and kind of resistance anticipated, relative power of initiator, need for involvement in diagnosis and implementation, stakes involved
Decoding Resistance to change-Ford & Ford Don't suppress dialogue-will miss out on valuable feedback and input, boost awareness, elicit ideas-enthusiasm, ownership and commitment, uncover past failures
Armenkis and Readiness Refocus attention away from the individual and towards the system and role of management, if system is not ready for change then there will be resistance
Competing Commitment-Kegan and Lahey Need to determine underlying assumptions behind competing commitments
Evaluation Provide feedback to practitioners and organization members about the progress and impact of interventions
Hughes-70% change programs fail no valid empirical evidence, people evaluate success differently,hard to measure
The need for evaluation render judgments on success/failure. Facilitate program improvements. Generate knowledge/learning. Ensuring on the right path
Balanced Scorecard-Kaplan and Norton translate company's strategic objective into a coherent set of performance measures, transparency critical
Issues in Evaluating OD Interventions Implementation and evaluation feedback. Measurements-select right variable and good design measurements (operational, reliable, valid). research Design-show results (longitudinal measurement, comparison units, statistical analysis)
Implementation Feedback Done during the change initiative, feedback aimed at guiding implementation efforts, measures of the intervention progress
Evaluation feedback Done after initiative, aimed at determining impact of intervention, measures interventions effect
Types of Evaluation Quantitative (Surveys, benchmarking, cost/benefit). Qualitative (interviews, focus groups, observation)
Sources of Reliability rigorous operational definition, multiple measures, standardization of instruments
Types of validity Face validity-appears valid, content validity-experts think its valid
Barriers to evaluation lack of resources, perceived lack of value of evaluation, lack of time, organizational politics, lack of measurable variables, lack of competence, fear of being blamed
Institutionalization How do you embed the program in the company
organizational characteristics that affect institutionalization Congruence (extent intervention aligns with environment, strategic orientation or other changes taking place). Stability of environment and technology. Unionization
Intervention characteristics that lead to institutionalization Goal specificity (the more specific the more motivating). Programmability (ability to tailor). Level of change target (broader means more control over external process). Internal support. Sponsorship
Institutionalization processes Socialization-culture needs to reward new behaviors and communicate. Commitment. Reward allocation. Diffusion. Sensing and calibration
Indicators of instituationalization Knowledge (members know enough to perform behaviors and understand consequences). Performance (proportion and frequency). Preference (members accept change). Normative consensus (agree change appropriate). Value consensus (agree on values of change)
Key Debates about OD no longer relevant, taken for granted, needs to change, no agreed upon theory, poorly defined, poor practitioner accreditation, increasing emergent tendencies
Changing OD Needs more O (business, operational and technical focus), too much human processes, go back to roots, become more emergent and less rigid or bring theory and practice together
Contextual trends leading to OD future More embedded in organizational operations, more technologically enabled, shorter OD cycle times, more interdisciplinary, more diverse, more cross cultural
Implications for OD's future more involved in driving effectiveness in a broader range of organization. More involved in supporting technological and managerial innovation. more concerned with preserving cultural diversity. Focus on ecological sustainability
Forger and Skarlicki Resistance to change based on perceptions of unfairness-e three types of justice (i.e. distributive, procedural

or interactional justice
Jacobs Cascade training for institutionalization-select group of employees detailed training then train pertinent information to next ranking down and so on