History Chap. 9/10

Term Definition
artisan skilled, experienced worker who produces specialized goods by hand
Cumberland Road a national highway that provided thousands with a route from Maryland to Illinois
deskilling breaking an artisanal production process into smaller steps that unskilled workers can perform
Erie Canal a canal that connected the Hudson River to Lake Erie and markets in the West
free moral agency the freedom to change one’s own life and bring about one’s own salvation
labor theory of value an economic theory holding that profits from the sale of the goods produced by workers should be equitably distributed to those workers
land offices sites where prospective landowners could buy public land from the government
machine tools machines that cut and shape metal to produce standardized, interchangeable parts for mechanical devices such as clocks or guns
Mohawk and Hudson Railroad the first steam-powered locomotive railroad in the United States
putting-out system a labor system whereby a merchant hired different families to perform specific tasks in a production process
specie “hard” money, usually in the form of gold and silver coins
Working Men’s Party a political group that radically opposed what they viewed as the exploitation of workers
Junius Spencer Morgan one of the fathers of the American private banking system.
Robert Fulton builds worlds first successful steamboat
Cysrus Invented the mechanical
Samuel Slater built the nation’s first successful water-powered
American System the program of federally sponsored roads and canals, protective tariffs, and a national bank advocated by Henry Clay and enacted by President Adams
code of deference the practice of showing respect for individuals who had distinguished themselves through accomplishments or birth
corrupt bargain the term that Andrew Jackson’s supporters applied to John Quincy Adams’s 1824 election, which had occurred through the machinations of Henry Clay in the U.S. House of Representatives
Five Civilized Tribes the five tribes—Cherokee, Seminole, Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw—who had most thoroughly adopted Anglo-American culture; they also happened to be the tribes that were believed to stand in the way of western settlement in the South
Kitchen Cabinet a nickname for Andrew Jackson’s informal group of loyal advisers
log cabin campaign the 1840 election, in which the Whigs painted William Henry Harrison as a man of the people
monster bank the term Democratic opponents used to denounce the Second Bank of the United States as an emblem of special privilege and big government
nullification the theory, advocated in response to the Tariff of 1828, that states could void federal law at their discretion
rotation in office originally, simply the system of having term limits on political appointments; in the Jackson era, this came to mean the replacement of officials with party loyalists
second party system the system in which the Democratic and Whig Parties were the two main political parties after the decline of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties
spoils system the political system of rewarding friends and supporters with political appointments
Tariff of Abominations a federal tariff introduced in 1828 that placed a high duty on imported goods in order to help American manufacturers, which southerners viewed as unfair and harmful to their region
Trail of Tears the route of the forced removal of the Cherokee and other tribes from the southeastern United States to the territory that is now Oklahoma
tyranny of the majority Alexis de Tocqueville’s phrase warning of the dangers of American democracy
universal manhood suffrage voting rights for all male adults
Whigs a political party that emerged in the early 1830s to oppose what members saw as President Andrew Jackson’s abuses of power