Anatomy Chapters 6,7,&8

Question Answer
Skeletal Cartilage molds to fit it's body location and function

contains no blood vessels or nerves
Hyaline cartilage provide support with flexibility & resilience
Articular cartilage (Hyaline) cover the ends of most bones at movable joints
Costal cartilage (Hyaline) connect the ribs to the sternum
Respiratory cartilage (Hyaline) form the skeleton of the larynx and reinforce other respiratory passageways
Nasal cartilage support the external nose
Elastic cartilage resembles hyaline cartilage but contains more stretchy elastic fibers so it is better able to bend
Elastic cartilage location external ear and epiglottis
Fibrocartilages Highly compressible with great tensile strength

consists of roughly parallel rows of chondrocytes alternating with thick collagen fibers
Fibrocartilage location found in places subjected to pressure and stretching such as the padlike cartilages of the knee and discs between vertebrae
Appositional growth process of cartilage increasing in width
Interstitial growth process of cartilage increasing in length
Seven important functions of bones support, protection, anchorage, mineral and growth factor storage, blood cell formation, triglyceride, hormone production
Support Bones provide a framework that supports the body and protects its organs.
Protection The skull, vertebrae, and rib cage all protect vital organs.
Anchorage Skeletal muscles, which attach to bones by tendons, use bones as levers to move the body and it's parts.
Mineral and growth factor storage Bone is a reservoir for minerals, most importantly calcium and phosphate. Additionally, mineralized bone matrix stores important growth factors.
Blood cell formation Most blood cell formation, or hematopoiesis, occurs in the red marrow cavities of certain bones.
Triglyceride (fat) storage Fat, a source of energy for the body, is stored in bone cavities
Hormone production Bones produce osteocalcin, a hormone that helps regulate insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis and energy expenditure
Axial skeleton forms the long axis of the body

contains the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage

functions to protect, support, and carry
Appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder and hip bones) that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton
Long bones longer than they are wide

has a shaft plus two extended ends

All limb bones except the patella and the wrist and ankle bones
short bones Roughly cubed shaped

Bones of the wrists and ankles
Sesamoid bones special type of short bone that forms in a tendon

patella
Flat bones thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved

sternum, scapulae, ribs, and most skull bones
Irregular bones complicated shapes that fit none of the classes

vertebrae, and hip bones
compact bone The external layer of bone that looks smooth but is very dense
spongy bone a honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces called trabeculae

filled with red or yellow bone marrow
Diaphysis (long bone) A shaft which forms the axis of the bone

constructed from compact bone

surrounds the medullary cavity

in adults it contains fat (yellow marrow)
Epiphyses the bone's ends which are broader than the diaphysis

compact bone forms the exterior and contains spongy bone

cartilage covers the ends to absorb stress during movement
Epiphyseal plate a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone
periosteum a glistening white, double-layered membrane that covers the external surface of the entire body except the joint surfaces
Endosteum a delicate connective tissue membrane that covers the internal bone surfaces
bone marking sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, or as conduits for blood vessels and nerves
projections bone markings that bulge outward from the surface

(heads, trochanters, spines, etc)
Bone markings that are depressions and openings fossae, sinuses, foramina, and grooves
Osteogenic (Osteoprogenitor) cells mitotically active stem cells found in the membranous periosteum and endosteum.

In growing bones they are flattened or squamous cells

When stimulated they become osteoblasts
Osteoblasts bone-forming cells that secrete the bone matrix and play a role in matrix calcification
Osteocytes mature bone cells that occupy spaces that conform to their shape

have sensors which respond to stress

communicate with remodeling cells (osteoclasts/blasts)
Osteoclasts giant multinucleate cells located at sites of bone resorption

remodeling cells
Osteon (Haversian system) structural unit of compact bone
lamella the matrix tubes of compact bone
perforating canals lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect blood and nerve supply of the medullary cavities to central canals
Central canal runs through the core of each osteon and contain small blood vessels and nerve fibers
canaliculi hair-like canals which connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal
Interstitial lamellae lie between intact osteons and are incomplete
Circumferential lamellae located deep to the periosteum and just superficial to the endosteum

extend around the entire diaphysis and resist twisting of the long bone
tuberosity (MLA) large rounded projection; may be roughened
crest (MLA) narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
trochanter (MLA) very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process
line (MLA) narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
tubercle (MLA) small rounded projection or process
epicondyle (MLA) raised area on or above a condyle
spine (MLA) sharp, slender, often pointed projection
process (MLA) any bony prominence
head (JF) bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
Facet (JF) smooth, nearly flat articular surface
Condyle (JF) Rounded articular projection
Ramus (JF) Armlike bar of bone
Groove (DAO) furrow
Fissure (DAO) narrow, slitlike opening
Foramen (DAO) round or oval opening through a bone
notch (DAO) indentation at the edge of a structure
Meatus (DAO) Canal-like passageway
Sinus (DAO) Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
Fossa (DAO) Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
Osteoid the organic part of the matrix

includes ground substance and collagen fibers
Ossification (Osteogenesis) process of bone formation
Endochondral Ossification a bone develops by replacing hyaline cartilage and the bone is called a cartilage or endochondral bone
Intramembranous Ossification a bone develops from a fibrous membrane and the bone is called a membrane bone

forms the cranial bones of the skull and clavicles
Primary ossification center the center of the hyaline cartilage shaft
steps of endochondral ossification 1. blood vessels infiltrate the perichondrium covering the hyaline cartilage and converting it to a vascularized periosteum

2. the underlying cells specialize into osteoblasts and ossification begins
the 5 steps of ossification A bone collar forms around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage.

Cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and develops cavities.

The periosteal bud invades the internal cavities and spongy bone forms.
the 5 steps of ossification (Continued) The diaphysis elongates and a medullary cavity forms

The Epiphyses ossify

Intramembranous ossification begins
parathyroid hormones the primary hormonal control
calcitonin produced by parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
nondisplaced fracture the bone ends retain their normal position
displaced fracture the bone ends are out of normal alignment
complete fracture the bone is broken all the way through
incomplete fracture the bone is not broken all the way through
open (compound) fracture the bone penetrates the skin
closed (simple) fracture the bone does not penetrate the skin
reduction the realignment of bone ends
closed (external) reduction the physicians hands coax the bone back into alignment
open (internal) reduction the bone ends are secured together surgically by pins or wires
the 4 stages of fracture repair A hematoma forms, Fibrocartilaginous callus forms, Bony callus forms, Bone remodeling occurs
What happens when a hematoma forms When a bone breaks, blood vessels in the bone and periosteum are torn and hemorrhage. As a result, a hematoma, a mass of clotted blood, forms at the fracture site.
Fibrocartilaginous callus within a few days of a fracture soft granulation tissue, also called soft callus forms. Capillaries grow into the hematoma and phagocytic cells invade the area and begin cleaning up the debris. Fibroblasts, cartilage, and osteogenic cells start repairing.
Bony callus within a week new bone trabeculae appear in the soft callus and gradually convert it to a bony callus. formation continues for about two months until a firm union forms
Bone remodeling beginning during bony callus formation and continuing for several months after the bony callus is remodeled. Compact bone is laid down in place of the bony callus.
Osteomalacia includes a number of disorders in which bones are poorly mineralized
rickets the disease in children similar to osteomalacia including a variety of disorders due to poor mineralization
osteoporosis refers to a group of diseases in which bone resorption outspaces bone deposit (brittle bone disease)
Paget's disease excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption. The new bone is hastily made and has unusually high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone.
coronal suture where the parietal bones meet the frontal bone
sagittal suture where the parietal bones meet the superiorly at the cranial midline
lambdoid suture where the parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly
squamous suture where a parietal and temporal bone meet on the lateral aspect of the skull
cervical vertebrae 7 concave
thoracic vertebrae 12 concave
lumbar vertebrae 5 convex
sacral vertebrae 5 fused vertebrae
coccyx 4 fused vertebrae
kyphosis hunchback
lordosis swayback
scoliosis twisted back
joints sites where two or more bones meet
synarthroses immovable joints
amphiarthroses slightly movable joints
diarthroses freely movable joints
sutures literally means seams
synostoses closed sutures. unmovable, and only in the skull
syndemoses bones are connected exclusively by ligaments (amount of movement depends on length of ligaments)
gomphosis peg-in-socket fibrous joint (ex. a tooth in it's socket)
periodontal ligament the ligament which holds a tooth in it's socket in such a way it's like it's hammered in
synchondrosis a bar or plate of hyaline unites the bones (ex. epiphyseal plates)
symphysis a joint where fibrocartilage unites the bone

permits little movement
articular cartilage glassy-smooth hyaline cartilage covering opposing bones
joint cavity a feature unique to synovial joints

a potential space which contains a small amount of synovial fluid
articular capsule the joint cavity is enclosed by a two-layered joint capsule composed of dense irregular connective tissue

the inner layer is a synovial membrane
reinforcing ligaments synovial joints are reinforced and strengthened by a number of bandlike ligaments
capsular ligaments thickened parts of the fibrous layer (found outside the articular capsule)
fatty pads between the fibrous layer and the synovial membrane or bone
tendon sheath an elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction like a bun around a hot dog
origin beginning of something
insertion the opposite end to the origin
nonaxial movement slipping movements only
uniaxial movement movement in one plane
biaxial movement movement in two planes
multiaxial movement movement in or around all three planes of space and axes
gliding movement occurs when on flat bone surface glides or slips over another back and forth
angular movement increase or decrease the angle between two bones
flexion a bending movement usually along the sagittal plane that decreases the angle of the joint
extension allows movement along the sagittal plane and increases the angle of the joint
hyperextension continuing movement past anatomical position
Abduction movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
adduction movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
circumduction moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space
rotation turning of a bone around its own long axis
supination turning backward
pronation turning forward
dorsiflexion lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin
plantar flexion pointing the toes
inversion the sole of the foot turns medially
eversion the sole of the foot faces laterally
elevation lifting a body part superiorly
depression moving the elevated part inferiorly
opposition touching your thumbs to the tips of other fingers
hip joint ball and socket joint
temporomandibular joint a modified hinge joint (jaw joint)
cartilage tears common in young athletes because of overuse of joints

happens when a joint is subjected to compression and shear stress at the same time
arthroscopic surgery removal of the damaged cartilage
sprain the ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn
dislocation occurs when bones are forced out of alignment
bursitis inflammation of the bursa
tendonitis inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
arthritis inflammatory disease that damages the joints
osteoarthritis wear and tear arthritis (most common)
rheumatoid arthritis chronic inflammatory disorder
autoimmune disease the body attacks its own tissue
gouty arthritis uric acid levels rise excessively and effect the joints
lyme disease an inflammatory disease caused by spirochete bacteria transmitted by the bite of ticks. results in joint pain and arthritis
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