Mahmoud Ali is a lawyer, and friend of Aziz and Hamidullah. He is one of the defense attorneys at Aziz’s trial. He is excitable and extremely anti-British. His emotional reactions and his hatred do not serve him well in the courtroom.
Amritrao is a renowned British-educated barrister who comes to Chandrapore to defend Aziz.
Dr. Aziz is a young Indian Moslem doctor, a widower with three children. He is excitable, emotional, and talkative, with a desire to please. He does not always tell the truth, and has a habit of believing whatever is most convenient or attractive to him. He is extremely sensitive, and quick to take offense. He loves to recite and write poetry. Aziz arranges an expedition to the Marabar Caves for Mrs. Moore and Adela Quested, but the expedition ends in disaster when Adela accuses him of assaulting her in one of the caves. After the charges are withdrawn, the embittered Aziz moves to another province, away from British India. He meets his friend Fielding again, but their friendship, which has been ruptured by the turn of events, never recovers its former intimacy.
The Nawab Bahadur is a wealthy Indian landowner and philanthropist. Initially, he is favorable to the British, who gave him his title. But later he finances Aziz’s defense, and when passions are running high immediately after the trial, he renounces his title and becomes plain Mr. Zulfiqar.
Major Callendar is the Civil Surgeon in Chandrapore, and Aziz’s boss. He is an arrogant, unpleasant man who does little to disguise his anti-Indian feelings.
Das is the assistant magistrate who presides over Aziz’s trial. He is a fair-minded man who does his best to assert his authority over the proceedings.
Miss Derek is a free-spirited, good-humored young Englishwoman who works for a Maharajah in an Indian-ruled state far from Chandrapore. She takes leave from her job whenever she feels like it, taking the Maharani’s car with her. Later, she has an affair with McBryde.
Cyril Fielding is the principal of the government college near Chandrapore. He does not share the prejudice that the other English people show toward Indians, and he is popular with his students. However, the English people are aware that he is not really “one of them,” and are consequently wary of him. Fielding forms a friendship with Aziz and is convinced that Aziz is innocence of the charge brought against him. Fielding tries to discover the facts of the case, and joins forces with the Indians who conduct Aziz’s defense. Fielding’s friendship with Aziz cools, however, and Aziz later breaks off all contact with him. At the end of the novel, after Fielding returns to India from England with his new wife, he and Aziz are finally reconciled, although without their former intimacy.
Professor Godbole is an elderly Brahmin, a member of the highest Hindu caste. He teaches at Government College. He is learned and spiritually-minded, tending to stand aloof from human affairs.
Hamidullah is Aziz’s uncle and a friend of Fielding. He is the leading barrister (lawyer) in Chandrapore. He was educated in England, and he believes it is possible to be friends with the English.
Ronny Heaslop is the City Magistrate of Chandrapore, and the son of Mrs. Moore. He is relatively new at his post, having been in the country only one year, but he has already inherited the usual intolerant English attitudes to the Indians. According to Adela Quested, who briefly becomes engaged to marry him, Ronny thinks he is always right and is complacent.
Dr. Panna Lal is Aziz’s colleague. He is a Hindu, from a low-class background, and Aziz does not respect him. In his turn, Lal dislikes Aziz and is willing to testify for the prosecution against him at the trial. After the case is dropped Lal begs Aziz for forgiveness.
Mr. McBryde is the District Superintendent of Police. He is a well educated, reflective man who treats Aziz with courtesy at the time of his arrest. However, McBryde cloaks his racism in theories about what he thinks are Oriental psychology and pathology. For example, he thinks that all “natives” are criminals at heart because they live south of latitude 30.
Mrs. Moore is an elderly Englishwoman who visits India accompanied by Adela Quested. The purpose of her visit is to offer Adela and Mrs. Moore’s son, Ronny Heaslop, the chance to become engaged. At first, Mrs. Moore is amiable and interested in her surroundings. She makes friends with Aziz when they happen to meet at a mosque. But after her expedition to the caves she becomes morose, and loses interest in life. She knows Aziz is innocent but she does nothing to help him. She dies at sea on her way home to England.
Ralph Moore is Mrs. Moore’s son. He is a polite, sensitive young man, who accompanies his sister to Mau and meets Aziz.
Stella Moore is Mrs. Moore’s daughter. She marries Fielding.
Miss Adela Quested is a young Englishwoman who with Mrs. Moore visit India for the first time. She is to decide whether to become engaged to Ronny Heaslop. Adela is intelligent and curious; she wants to discover the real India and meet Indians. She is determined not to develop the patronizing and contemptuous attitude to Indians that the other English people have. Adela is involved in the central incident in the novel, when she accuses Aziz of assaulting her in one of the Marabar Caves. Later, at the trial, she withdraws her accusation. Shunned by the English, and with her engagement to Ronny broken off, she returns to England.
Mr. Turton, known as the Collector, is the governor of Chandrapore. He has an officious manner, and he shares the usual English prejudices, but he treats Indians with courtesy, even arranging “Bridge Parties,” to bridge the gap between East and West.
Mrs. Turton is Mr. Turton’s wife. She is a snob and a racist and does not seem to mind who knows it.